KALA Health offers GlucosaGreen® Glucosamine HCL in three different sizes: 500 gram, 1 kg en 5 kg. Enclosed are handy measure spoons, which makes it easy to find the righ dosage..
GlucosaGreen® Glucosamine is 100% vegetarian, manufactured in the United States. The manufacturing process includes fermentation of corn, by the fungus Aspergillus niger. The corn is non-genetically modified origin (non-gmo). The end product of the fermentation process is rich on chitine, which is further metabolized into glucosamine.
Glucosamine obtained in this way, is manufactured under fully controlled circumstances, according to the highest quality standards. The purity is extremely high, it never contains less than 98% glucosamine.
Glucosamine as a molecule is not very stable. To increase the stability, glucosamine is turned into a 'salt' by attaching it to another molecule. In GlucosaGreen® the glucosamine is connected to an HCL-group, as this form yields the highest amount (82%) of elemetary glucosamine.
GlucosaGreen® Glucosamine 1 kg (98% pure glucosamine).
Enclosed a handy measure spoon. One flattened spoon contains 0,9 gram Regenasure Glucosamine.
Ingredient composition: Regenasure® glucosamine HCL granulated powder.
Free from: yeast, sugar, starch, lactose, gluten, artificial colors, palatizers or preservatives.
Analytical Constituents: Carbohydrates 100%, Crude protein 0, Crude oils and fats 0%, crude ash 0%
This products is a supplementary feed for dogs and cats (contains glucosamine).
Do not deviate from recommended dosage. Do not take if the product has expired
Storage: Store in a dark, dry place at room temperature. Keep out of reach of children.
Obligatory statement: A dietary supplement cannot be considered a replacement for a well-balanced meal.
WHICH FORM OF GLUCOSAMINE?
Glucosamine as a molecule is not stable, and is metabolized into a 'salt' by adding another molecule. The most common glucosamine salts in the market are:
There is some uncertainty about the question, which one of these three forms would be most effective. Many scientists agree, the form of the salt really should not matter. After all, in the acid environment of the stomach the salt desintegrates into a glucosamine molecule and a rest group. The glucosamine molecule is absorbed in the intestine. The rest molecule however, disappears completely amongst the billions of molecules Hydrochloric Acid (-HCL) in the gastric fluid.
Some 'experts' claim, glucosaminesulfate.NaCl would be the only form of glucosamine that has been scientifically proved effective. We know by now, this 'proven' efficacy has more to do with the purity of the glucosamine, than with the form. The glucosaminesulfate.NaCl used in several outstanding studies, was a patented form of glucosamine (Rottapharm), and of pharmaceutical quality. Many other studies have been done with other forms of glucosamine (glucosaminesulfate.2KCl and glucosamine-HCl). Though these forms have been approved as generics or food supplements, we may safely assume many products used in studies have been inferior in quality.
This assumption is shared by many other authors, who suggest the quality of the glucosamine used may have had more influence on the outcome of the strudies, than the form of glucosamine (sulfate versus HCl).
Rovati LC, F. Girolami et al: Crystalline glucosamine sulfate in the management of knee osteoarthritis: efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetic properties. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2012 June 4(3): 167-180.
Besides, intake protocols were not the same in the studies. Most studies were set up with an intake schedule of 500 mg, three times per day. However, the succesful glucosaminesulfate.NaCl studies were set up with an intake schedule of 1500 mg, once a day. Different intake patterns may lead to different pharmacokinetic patterns of glucosamine in the body. as a result, such studies cannot be compared well.
Aghazadeh et al (2011) fed rats orally an eaqual dosage glucosamine of both forms. The glucosaminesulfate.NaCl used, was the patented form of pharmaceutical quality, manufactured by Rottapharm. The glucosamine.HCl used, was the vegetarian Regenasure® glucosamine, manufactured by Cargill. The image below shows, the change of glucosamine plasma concentration in time was almost identical.
Image: Glucosamine plasma concentration (mg/l) against time (hour), after oral intake of glucosamine (100 mg/kg rat) as glucosaminesulfate (GlcN-S) or glucosamine-HCl (GlcN-HCl).
The same authors investigated the excretion of glucosamine in the urine of four human volunteers, after oral intake of 1500 mg glucosaminesulfate.NaCl (Rottapharm) or glucosamine-HCl (Regenasure® by Cargil). The image below shows, excretion of both forms was almost identical.
Image: Excretion speed (mg/h) of glucosamine in the urine against time (hour) at human volunteers, after oral intake of 1500 mg glucosamine as glucosaminesulfate.NaCl (GlcN-S) or glucosamine-HCl (GlcN-HCl).
The authors conclude, both absorption and excretion of the used glucosaminesulfate.NaCl and glucosamine-HCl are identical, showing no difference in biological availability for the body.
Aghazadeh-Habashi A. en Fakhreddin Jamali: The Glucosamine Controversy: A Pharmacokinetic Issue. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci 2011; 14(2): 264 – 273.
Now we can rule out biological availability, it becones interesting to take a look at the economics. A sulfate group has a much higher weight than a HCl group. This becomes clear in the % elementary glucosamine, which is only 58% for glucosaminesulfate.2KCl and 62% for glucosaminesulfate.NaCl. Glucosamine-HCl however, contains 82% elementary glucosamine.
To put it differently: to take a similar amount of elementary glucosamine, you need to take 41% and 32% more of glucosaminesulfate.2KCl and glucosaminesulfate.NaCl respectively, compared to glucosamine-HCl.
||% elementary glucosamine
Research shows, the biological availability of glucosamine-HCl and glucosaminesulfate.NaCl is identical. Glucosamine-HCl contains 32% more elementary glucosamine, and is also availoable from vegetarian source (by fermentation of corn dextrose). A vegatarian source eliminates the risk of allergic reactions, which provides another advantage compared to glucosamine manufactired from shell fish waste material. Vegetarian glucosamine-HCl is the preferred choice compared to glucosaminesulfate.NaCl, considering both are of identical (pharmaceutical) quality. The third for often used is glucosaminesulfate.2KCl. The realtively low amount of gelementary glucosamine ánd the usually doubtful quality, makes this the least preferred form.